Israel’s large Palestinian minority is often spoken of in terms of
the threat it poses to the Jewish majority. Palestinian citizens’
reproductive rate constitutes a “demographic timebomb”, while their main
political programme – Israel’s reform into “a state of all its
citizens” – is proof for most Israeli Jews that their compatriots are
really a “fifth column”.
But who would imagine that Israeli Jews could be so intimidated by the innocuous Christmas tree?
This issue first came to public attention two years ago when it was
revealed that Shimon Gapso, the mayor of Upper Nazareth, had banned
Christmas trees from all public buildings in his northern Israeli city.
“Upper Nazareth is a Jewish town and all its symbols are Jewish,”
Gapso said. “As long as I hold office, no non-Jewish symbol will be
presented in the city.”
The decision reflected in part his concern that Upper Nazareth, built
in the 1950s as the centrepiece of the Israeli government’s
“Judaisation of the Galilee” programme, was failing dismally in its
Far from “swallowing up” the historic Palestinian city of Nazareth
next door, as officials had intended, Upper Nazareth became over time a
magnet for wealthier Nazarenes who could no longer find a place to build
a home in their own city. That was because almost all Nazareth’s
available green space had been confiscated for the benefit of Upper
Instead Nazarenes, many of them Palestinian Christians, have been
buying homes in Upper Nazareth from Jews – often immigrants from the
former Soviet Union – desperate to leave the Arab-dominated Galilee and
head to the country’s centre, to be nearer Tel Aviv.
The exodus of Jews and influx of Palestinians have led the government
to secretly designate Upper Nazareth as a “mixed city”, much to the
embarrassment of Gapso. The mayor is a stalwart ally of far-right
politician Avigdor Lieberman and regularly expresses virulently
anti-Arab views, including recently calling Nazarenes “Israel-hating
residents whose place is in Gaza” and their city “a nest of terror in
the heart of the Galilee”.
Although neither Gapso nor the government has published census
figures to clarify the city’s current demographic balance, most
estimates suggest that at least a fifth of Upper Nazareth’s residents
are Palestinian. The city’s council chamber also now includes
But Gapso is not alone in his trenchant opposition to making even the
most cursory nod towards multiculturalism. The city’s chief rabbi,
Isaiah Herzl, has refused to countenance a single Christmas tree in
Upper Nazareth, arguing that it would be “offensive to Jewish eyes”.
That view, it seems, reflects the official position of the country’s
rabbinate. In so far as they are able, the rabbis have sought to ban
Christmas celebrations in public buildings, including in the hundreds of
hotels across the country.
A recent report in the Haaretz newspaper, on an Israeli Jew who grows
Christmas trees commercially, noted in passing: “hotels – under threat
of losing kashrut certificates – are prohibited by the rabbinate from
decking their halls in boughs of holly or, heaven forbid, putting up
even the smallest of small sparkly Christmas tree in the corner of the
In other words, the rabbinate has been quietly terrorising Israeli
hotel owners into ignoring Christmas by threatening to use its powers to
put them out of business. Denying a hotel its kashrut (kosher)
certificate would lose it most of its Israeli and foreign Jewish
Few mayors or rabbis find themselves in the uncomfortable position of
needing to go public with their views on the dangers of Christmas
decorations. In Israel, segregation between Jews and Palestinians is
almost complete. Even most of the handful of mixed cities are really
Jewish cities with slum-like ghettoes of Palestinians living on the
Apart from Upper Nazareth, the only other “mixed” place where
Palestinian Christians are to be found in significant numbers is Haifa,
Israel’s third largest city. Haifa is often referred to as Israel’s most
multicultural and tolerant city, a title for which it faces very little
But the image hides a dirtier reality. A recent letter from Haifa’s
rabbinate came to light in which the city’s hotels and events halls were
reminded that they must not host New Year’s parties at the end of this
month (the Jewish New Year happens at a different time of year). The
hotels and halls were warned that they would be denied their kashrut
licences if they did so.
“It is a seriously forbidden to hold any event at the end of the
calendar year that is connected with or displays anything from the
non-Jewish festivals,” the letter states.
After the letter was publicised on Facebook, Haifa’s mayor, Yona
Yahav, moved into damage limitation mode, overruling the city’s
rabbinical council on Sunday and insisting that parties would be allowed
to go ahead. Whether Yahav has the power to enforce his decision on the
notoriously independent-minded rabbinical authorities is still
But what is clear is that there is plenty of religious intolerance
verging on hatred being quietly exercised against non-Jews, mostly
behind the scenes so as not to disturb Israel’s “Jewish and democratic”
image or outrage the millions of Christian tourists and pilgrims who
visit Israel each year.
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